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Larry Schweikart Education. (2012) 'A Patriot's History of the Modern World From America's Exceptional Ascent to the Atomic Bomb 1898-1945.'

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America 16, United States 12, Europe 9, Germany 7, U.s. 6, Unquote 3, Starbucks 3, Howard Hughes 3, Britain 3, England 3, Arizona 3, Eugenics 2, Larry Schweikart 2, Dr. Larry Schweikart 2, The Versailles 2, Henry Kaiser 2, Woodrow Wilson 2, Charles Murray 2, Andrew Jackson Higgins 1, Whereure 1,
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  CSPAN    Book TV    Larry Schweikart  Education.  (2012) 'A Patriot's History of  
   the Modern World From America's Exceptional Ascent to the...  

    November 25, 2012
    4:30 - 5:15pm EST  

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>> for the next 45 minutes, larry schweikart presents global participation and influence from 1898. during this time the united states introduced numerous political, cultural and economic ideas to the rest of the world. >> afternoon. thank you for joining us at the heritage foundation. we of course welcome those who join us on the heritage.org website on all these occasions. we ask everyone in house if you'll check selfless one last time see they are turned off. thank you, larry. amazing how many speakers start doing that when i say that. we will post a program on her website within 24 hours for your future reference and of course her internet viewers always welcome to gmail us with questions or comment. simply writing those two speaker at heritage.org.
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our guest today, dr. larry schweikart is a native of arizona. he earned his bachelor at arizona state university received his doctorate from the university of california santa barbara. throughout his high school and college, however, he spent most of his time playing drums in a variety of rock bands. as a rock drummer he was part of several groups, one of which open for steppenwolf among other performers for those old enough to remember them. this first film, rock in the world about rock music started bringing down communism began airing on pbs this week and will continue throughout this year. dr. larry schweikart syrups are hissed at business, economic history as well as military history. is the author of more than a dozen books, including first a pitcher's history of the united states, which he co-authored. other topics on which is written
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include national defense, history and historiography in the u.s. economy. a television series based on the united states is currently in development as well. we're pleased to welcome to hear about his newest book, a pitcher's history of the modern world, which in this case is going to be from 1898, two just after the second world war. please join me in welcoming larry schweikart. [applause] >> well, thanks so much to heritage foundation for inviting me here. it's really an honor and one that i wish my father was alive to see. heritage is one of those great bastian said liberty in a swelling sea of collect this and. you probably didn't know that you are getting somebody here who was the previous rock drummer. this later became significant
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learning -- as a learning experience when i began working on this film. but all along, my experience and about and were pretty informative. sma students i know about communism because i was in a rock band. we shared everything, had nothing to start. when mike allen and i would've "a patriot's history of the modern world," we identified three major elements that made up americanism. nevertheless, we never really provided a definition of american exceptionalism and during the revisions over time, we corrected that for the next edition we hope will be out next year. even in 2004, it seemed a natural progression to move towards a history of the world, especially the modern world. it's the modern world we see the truthfulness of american liberty and prosperity on display and under attack.
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through an amazon book review of "a patriot's history of the modern world" and it did doherty, an arkansas businessman historian computer expert for an evening shade. yes, there's the evening shade arkansas. they first begin a top to bottom review of any errors in the united states and over time i discovered he's a wonderful co-author, so i asked in to help the with "a patriot's history of the modern world." he proved especially good in areas where this week and is a former intelligence officer in the army, he brought a new perspective to the cold war, especially in the second volume we work on now. as john mentioned, this volume one visit to 1945. volume two will be up about this time in 1846 to the present. i have to warn readers upfront, especially those who have seen me speak before, probably know me for a little more lighthearted or comic gershon, but this is a very sobering.
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spoke. after all, the pier from 1890 to make 1945 is an era dominated by two and speak of a seem much to run a nearly worldwide depression had characterized by such mussolini and hitler. i don't think even joe biden could buy for that material. while we have some sidebar sections, one of my favorite is a comparison and contrast between the borough's three leading architects of the day, frank lloyd wright and tony county and walter gropius, who epitomize nature, god and man, in that order. a robert parry's during race for the north pole. the bulk of the book is dedicated to political forces to appreciate the century. as one who gravitate towards the great man theory in most of my history, is almost at a loss of
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words last week for a book signing event, when a questioner asked me, who's the most important person in your book? it dawned on me this is in a book about most important people. it's a book about great ideas and terrible ideas, ideas that in the course of the century were tested in this climactic of ways, war. the most important of the ideas we discussed is something many writers and intellectuals pay lipservice to. american exceptionalism, but no one is really defined. we were surprised as we went through to find it wasn't a good definition of american exceptionalism. so i think that is her first accomplishment in "a patriot's history of the modern world." we examine and assign american exceptionalism through identification of what we call the four pillars. these are shaped america and in the same pillars are often largely or even entirely ignored in shaping the postwar world in
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world war i and later decolonization of the world, part of the second volume. this book follows a 50 year struggle between those who call constitutionalists who want to strengthen the four pillars and progressives who want to destroy them. what are the four pillars? first, america was founded on the christian religion and predominantly influenced by protestantism. by the 20th century cat and jewish played an important role, the culture of 1900 was fundamentally protestant and even the progressives emerge from the liberal protestant churches. this reinforced the second exceptional pillar, common law, which causes that god has given her the law given from god to the people and bubbles upward to the rulers. this gives us the government of
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the people, by the people and for the people that lincoln referred to. common law stands in stark opposition to almost every other nation on earth that is develop some form of civil law in which it trickles down from the top. both germany and england had, not for a while but by the 20 century have more or less abandoned it common to many more such an inkling. by the end of world war ii, when you're unloaded however i'd willingly if colony, those colonies for themselves designed on principles of civil law. thus the first to pillars taken together mean that a christian protestant religion influenced and shaped everything about america's foundation of laws and defined system of personal rate. it wasn't just that the united states is a democratic republic, but that the very premises of a democratic republic meant were likely to be far different in
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the united states than anywhere else. the second -- the third of the pillars of most economic freedom. private property rights was legal title is deeds and a free-market economy. and these may seem synonymous, but they are not. as hernando desoto pointed out in many places of the world, there is a semblance of a free economy at work, but there is no system of title deeds to land or other property. this has two significant effects. first it means property ownership is never secure. you can never be sure the government will come around and grab what you have. second, it means individuals with deeds and titles can use their land as collateral for business loans. this in turns illicit growth.
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in 1998 the united states at all for these pillars. britain had three and was fully listen, not. france, germany and european descent three, but some european states of the religious character already beginning to fade. around the world and africa, asia and latin america to come if you see fit, not in property research titles and dates. america came to prominence after the spanish-american war ended in the team 88. for the first time it's argued largely by leftist historians the u.s. acquired an empire with cuba and the philippines. if this were only revealed the deep differences between america and everyone else in history. for one of the first things the american congress did after the war was pass a law requiring the united states to give the cuba. when searches in vain for major
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world powers who voluntarily departed from conquered regions. as the 20 century dawned a group of liberals use to embrace the program loosely known as progressivism, challenge and criticize these four pillars. most were hostile to common law with president woodrow wilson been a prime example of one who thought the constitution needed to be malleable and only the fittest should direct the society. as america sat on the edge of leadership in europe entered a decade in which it convinces postwar was impossible. the book, grand illusion, catcher to view that europeans were too advanced, to sophisticated to fight each other. john maynard keynes echo davis with his famous observation about how the world is tied together, how an englishman can order from his doorstep product from faraway lands and have them delivered to them. it's kind of an early version of thomas friedman's theory, which
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claims the advanced country that used computers won't go to war with each other. i called the starbucks theory. any two countries that have starbucks won't fight unless they have triple espressos. another observer, i didn't book in a much different a positive or would be so bloody and weaponry so does the no one would dare risk a conflict. all these few six claim the leaders to be a stretch even in the present day. this of course finished in august 1914, it were sparked by one of the most unlikely of accidents when frantz ferdinand on its way back from his speeches. zero turned away from his planned route to visit a card and shared in an earlier failed attempt. of course he drove to his death, an incident that would plunge the world into a conflagration.
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i will delve into details of world war i here. perhaps the most significant victor the united states was when america finally entered the war, the british and french hope to insert american piecemeal into their unchartered units. general john black jack pershing, to his undying credit utterly refuse, insisting americans fight as an independent army, which they did. the revival of progressive islam came at the versailles conference of 1919 in which wilsonian ideals dominated the discussions. but not the actual final abridgment in most cases. practical british both of them emanating the german navy on the french object is of eliminating germany as a land-based or received wilson support city could institute a league of nations. a feel-good, toothless, unmotivated group of international elites. but wilsonian idealism did a
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central role every shaping postwar europe as millions of people were moved around the continent like chess pieces and porters were changed by client-side etch-a-sketch. one verse i purchased a bad cold people under discussion abstract lumps. another quote, the phrase national self-determination is simply loaded with dynamite. it will raise hopes they can never be realized. inc. of the misery it will cause, unquote. british diplomat harold nicholson walked into a study to find david. george, george clemenceau and woodrow wilson handing over a giant map spread on the carpet. he said, quote, they are cutting the baghdad railway. clemens with his blue gloved hand on the map looks psychic gorilla i feel avery. it is appallingly ignorant and irresponsible men should be cutting asia minor tidbits as if they were dividing a cake.
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entire populations were relocated to facilitate national self-determination and democracy was imposed on nations of the most basic pillars of exceptionalism. it's hardly a surprise than a decade those had collapsed into totalitarian dictatorships, unstable, unpopular or undesirable democracies are autocratic regimes. rather than blaming communism are progressivism, most of the collapsing states entered their fury on democracy and democratic systems. but the 20s, which produced an astounding level of wealth and high standard of living in america had a dark side in europe and america through the birth of public health programs that quickly morphed into eugenics. concerns about public hygiene masks deeper hostility to the jewish in europe and a minorities in america.
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as early as 1920, in germany karl binding and psychiatrists called for the destruction of life that is no longer worth living. can you say death panels? to visit doctors national duty to eliminate the value list. voluntary sterilization laws were passed in denmark, sweden, norway, switzerland. britain's report on mental deficiency causes identified with mental disorders quote from a social problem group in both europe and america disputes peacefully with eugenics. in america, a group was led by such people as margaret sanger, who struggled the birth control review endorsed her friend lathrop stoddard spoke. the title is the rising tide of color against white world supremacy.
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her emphasis niekro project used black ministers, including adam clayton powell to promote birth control. the efforts in england, germany and the united states ran far deeper than the ranting to stoddard or harsh. rather they found their way into national and state policies with support from groups such as the national committee for hygiene, urging sterilization as a means to present this clash of persons from propagating, unquote. germany used law to enlist doctors greatly extending the power of the state and producing the union with the medical profession that would be rather easily in the third grade. in germany, one expert observed the more scientific a doctor's outlook was, the more politically naïve he was. it was perhaps the highest and most sinister irony than american eugenicists, charles
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davenport, daughter forever taken, who headed the eugenics record office in new york said the fire you have kindled is going to be a purifying conflagration one day. his prophecy would come true only 20 years later and the cost of millions. it's fairly easy for government to manipulate public health, medicine and doctors for purposes of family planning. this didn't lead into prophecies colonial possessions and citizenship. peoples of egypt, india, algeria and africa clearly did not fit the presidency of educated elites and by their definition close to life unworthy of life, unquote. but these transfer marinade for a decade. in the meantime, american
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prosperity continues spreading to the rest of the civilized world. american advertisers come the film in the literature became highly desired in europe. it's another irony at this time. american movie saudi production emphasizes universal american team, sexualization, other top devices. american movie sold american exceptionalism, including puritanical moralist and as one observer put it. they occasionally need people such as keaton and charlie chaplin. is it is all done tongue-in-cheek to undermine the system itself. in 1832 u.s. at 18,000 movie houses and compared to francis, 2400 britain's 3000. europe simply could not compete
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with hollywood and american exceptionalism from the europeans want to be like mike. inflation, communist, agitation, ethnic unrest in the slow contradictions of versailles and cause the postwar european structure to crumble into the totalitarian moment. spain of course with the civil war was the first to see the future. as the rest of power in italy, then germany, then the samurai culture in japan, where assassination awaited anyone to all of asia, the remaining democracies in europe but it was just not even the weakest of aggressors. when miscellanies successfully crushed ethiopia and none of the leak of nationstates opposed him , and the entire nation was already dead and this of course is long before hitler invaded poland.
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but bailey replaced faith that would save the world in our view is that the progressive liberal new deal government at franklin d. roosevelt most likely out of sheer desperation unleash the productive power of free-market capitalism to bury the powers in a tsunami of tanks, planes and ships. anyone who's read my my books know the statistics are lined up just not far from where i teach, a tank was built from scratch in four and a half hours. henry kaiser shipyard turned out a liberty ship in a record four and a half days. that is faster than most students can write one of their semester papers. this american military strategy of using weapons and technology to thoroughly pummeled the enemy before a single american soldier was sent into battle.
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the were also exposed the fact that japan, which adopted some of the capitalistic reduction method seen in america lacked the essential pillars of exceptionalism to employ them fully in wartime. without free speech, free-market, constitutional protection that allowed great great adventures and businessmen to try new ideas and feel without punishment, japan fell behind the u.s. almost instantly. in four years of work, the u.s. produced 17 fleet carriers. japan won. we go into, for example, two guys viewed as failures or at least not very successful guys had that would be andrew jackson higgins who produced an incredible number of craft, but after the war was harassed out of business. especially look at people like
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howard hughes. howard hughes fused his giant failure during world war ii because he doesn't produce any weapons that were. he produces these wooden reconnaissance airplanes very fast, but they aren't used before the end of the war. this is the whole point. people like howard hughes were necessary so we could have people like henry kaiser. it's only because you have the failures that you know what doesn't work. every time something doesn't work, you know not to go the good it is because we had this in other countries did not come against the cd went every time or you die. that's going to cause a problem down the line. it is no different than your. the german miracle of economic reduction was in fact a façade supported by mass conscription that eliminated unemployment. in 1834 and early 1935, germany's economy was very willing that was pre-hitler's
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database. only the imposition of tariffs on eastern europe, which had no other trading partners and sit in the acquisition new lands enslaved workers allowed albert speer to sustain production. even not come at germany faced a fatal and hugely ironic reality of reverse love and strong in which undesirable people's were flooding back into germany to sustain the war effort while german soldiers in vast numbers were being sent to russia to die. the germans surrendered in the japanese were pushed back to their home islands, and the american to save human lives while the statute votes and bombs reached its zenith with the dropping of the two atomic bombs. virtually all of the relevant evidence, recent evidence from american and japanese sources nowadays president harry truman's decision to drop those
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bombs. japanese leaders did not display the slightest acknowledgment of military reality illustrated by the report of dr. sheena. japan's top atomic scientist sent down to hear a shame of following day and had to report back to the emperor. he was asked, was this an atomic bomb? dan kim the line, how long until we can make money? is hardly the response of somebody looking for a way to surrender. truman intended to show japan that he would use any weapon at our disposal. there was no atomic diplomacy. he wanted to show the japanese it was surrender or die. became a temporary victory the principles of american exceptionalism worldwide. unlike all previous empires commit the u.s. is unwilling to dominate the free world delete
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previous pictures had. the postwar world asked if america fisheries resources unreservedly, restrain itself economically and rebuild her former friends and enemies enthusiastically. this in turn would produce well in western europe. all provided by the protection of the american military. that will suddenly share would in turn provoked the very institutions and disciplines needed to maintain, let alone expand freedom and prosperity for others. i want to mention for a moment the role of the soviet union in world war ii and take this on as a challenge to prevailing wisdom. after 1942 the red army overwhelmed the and men insane. this method talk in the winter
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of 1941. one study suggests 85% outside moscow in the winter of 1942 was british. the best fighter plane in 1941, 42 in the red air force was acclaimed the americans when you can fly, the p. 39 air cobra. this applies soviets above their radios, on the radio wire, shipping to provide this stuff. tracks. all they have to do is get men in uniform to make tanks and artillery, which they did. so yes, they overwhelmed, but it came with a fantastic amount of support from the united states. as american soldiers arrived in england, the new work began between american and british generals for the command of allied armies. dwight eisenhower was the supreme commander, but the british constantly denigrated
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american troops in generals in private and public. takes great talent with you find a way to brush this aside much the way george washington brushed aside his own complaining subordinates in the revolution. while at key moments he put his foot down and essentially told the births to stuff it. that didn't stop field marshal bernard akamai from becoming a thorn in the sight of all american commanders in europe for the duration of the war. but i.e., omar bradley, george patton all mannish workarounds to minimize negative impacts of the war effort. so when the war ends, we're expected to supply wealth and prosperity to all be due to the best of our ability to get this brings with it this irony that by supplying wells and protection, you are eroding the very disciplines necessary to maintain and perpetuate
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prosperity for yourself and prosperity and freedom for others. that will be the challenge of the next 75 years on the topic of volume two. to provide canopy of liberty and perpetuate american exceptionalism while allowing just enough of the reign of difficulty and disappointment to remind americans and the world that the error which we don't than was no golden accident. and without i'm open for questions. >> we will accept questions from the floor. there will be a microphone past. when you recognize, if you would not mind stating your name and affiliation if there is one. first question for larry. is there not a fifth pillar, but i called the american spirit than most of the people who came to this continent chose to come to do what they could do for themselves and how well they could do was supposed to starting to ask, i'm here now.
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are you going to do for me? >> you know, that is a subject of heated debate among americanists because many will argue we have the drive. the famous line from the movie stripes, where he seemed were the guys nobody -- we got kicked out of every good country and the world. .. >> we do address this at length
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in the book. first of all, people need to understand that war is different than peace. what is a consumer good in peacetime? it's a flat screen tv, it's a starbucks. in wartime it's a tank or a bullet or a bomb. any consumer would gladly forgo other products to buy that if it means they stay alive. so the first time you have to recognize is that in wartime, people are redirecting their purchasing power from consumer goods into wartime goods. second thing i would argue is that, in fact, world world war s stimulate, but not for all of the demand-side, keynesian reasons that are given. it stimulates because it's a giant supply-side pump primer. what happens is americans have nothing to buy for four years, no factories are making any cars, they're not making any consumer items at all, there's nothing to buy. so most americans, certainly
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with the urging of their government, invest. and they invest in savings bonds. so at the end of four and a half, five years, they have all this pent-up demand, but they also have invested for four years, and business now has the ability to go in and make a giant supply-side investment. i mean, i think it's classic gilderresque response to an economic situation. it's just the opposite of what keynes argued. >> another question? in the back? thank you, ma'am. >> elizabeth clifford. what do you think -- [inaudible] second volume, what do you think are the circumstances that are required to keep the american exceptionalism a robust idea? >> yes, that's, of course, the question that's before us right now. and it is, um, how much ethnicity, how much national difference, how much diversity do you permit in without destroying the very elements
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that permit that diversity to come in in the first place in and i think, certainly, english language is one of those things that must be maintained. i think, certainly, having control of your borders is absolutely essential. i think that there are a number of cultural issues that probably have to be maintained, religion and so on. charles murray, not to give another plug to a book on booktv, but charles murray has a great book called "coming apart," and it deals with these very issues. and he shows how segregated our society has become in the last 50 years. not facially, but -- i hate this word because i'm not a marxist, but class wise. and it's very true. i remember growing up in chandler, arizona, city of about 12,000. and my dad was a ranch foreman on a cattle ranch. didn't make a ton of money, yet somehow he provided for my mother, college education, insurance, i don't know how he did it.
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but i looked across the street that way another very middle class family. i look across the street diagonally, and the lot next to them was their pool and their pool house. in terms of entertainment, it's just a terrible split. and that is something we have to repair. >> here, please. >> matt flynn, charles koch foundation. when you say that it's something we need to repair, what would you prescribe to be a fix for that? isn't that undermining the idea of spontaneous order? >> no. i think that all order has certain constraints that it acts within. waters form when you unite
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oxygen and hydrogen. and so i think that that spontaneous stuff has to happen when you have control of your borders, when you have an english language, when you -- let me go back to a previous book, to give a plug to that, "what would the founders say," and one of the things we noted or i noted in the section on education was -- and it surprised me -- was that almost all the founders favored some sort of public education. i was getting into that, and i thought, all right, i'm going to find home schoolers here. it can't happen. -- it didn't happen. but what i found was this that public education was they expected and demanded certain things be taught, you know, math and language skills, but also a patriotic history. and this was the phrase that they actually used, a history about how great it is to be an american. and one of them -- and since i didn't prepare that one for this talk, i forget who it was -- but he said all these other
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countries are great, all these other countries have stuff, but we are the best, and we can't understand them until we understand ourselves, and we must teach a patriotic american history. and so i think as said in the founding in order to have that spontaneity, you have to have a certain construct of structure. >> i'm joe stanton, heritage foundation. how would you evaluate fdr's overall legacy? >> um, disaster. i think that he set america's economy back eight, ten years. there's very good evidence now, and i call your attention to a study which is not widely cited. the study is one of the wage and hours act. and he shows that this act alone probably insured that we would never get pack to 1929 -- get back to 929 employment under
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roosevelt. basically he compares the hours work to business confidence and business expectations. and what he shows is that, um, the number of hours worked stayed -- went down, while the numbers -- i'm sorry, the number of workers stayed constant while the number of hours worked went down. they were going from ten full-time employees to five part-time employees, somewhere along those lines, and he finds 85-90% of the decline after 1934 when the first wage and hours act can be traced directly to this idea of a might minimum wa. in terms of all the other regulations, the excessive taxation, it's just one disaster after another. everyone -- and one of the things we do in "patriot's history" is we have a three-page chart that i've never seen anywhere else of the new deal and new deal programs. and we show what the program was, what its original goal was
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and what it looked like 50 years after. and it's amazing that 50 years after all of these things are disasters from banking regulation to minimum wage laws to agriculture. my stepfather, when my dad died, my mother remarried another farmer, and i used to do his books. and i remember getting the government subsidy checks. i want to thank all you guys very much for putting me through school, i appreciate it. but they were huge. and it was ridiculous that we were getting these checks. it pays farmers not to grow. now, you students, come on, you're going to get paid not to turn in papers? teachers are going to get paid not to teach? that was the equivalent of the agricultural adjustment act. so, you know, without that we might have been sunk without the war. because as i say, roosevelt out of desperation turns really, unleashes american business, turns to free market principles
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and lets the american businessmen more or less free. >> do we have somebody over there? then one in the back. >> anthony koppel, heritage foundation. as you may know, howard zen's people's history is even a primary text in some classrooms in america, unfortunately. how do you introduce your patriot's history of the united states to an audience of students who might have grown up on people's history? how do you introduce your work and your frame of reference to them who might have been presented or started with a different frame of reference? >> well, um, i do have a talk called why students need a patriot's history of the united states, but a couple years ago i did a book called 48 liberal lies about american history. it's a clever title, but really what i did is look at the top 20 history textbooks, college textbooks, and what i found was they all -- almost without exclusion -- shared certain similar just falsehoods like the
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rosenbergs were innocent or one favorite one is the transcontinental railroads never would have been built without government help. and, in fact, candidate barack obama used that example when he was arguing for, yes, a computer czar. we need to have a computer czar because, after all, the transcontinentals couldn't have been built without government help. excuse me, there's a guy named james j. hill, and james j. hill built the northern pacific railroad without a dime of government support. and guess what? it's the only one not to fail in the panic of 1873. all of the government-supported railroads collapsed because they're not profitable. now, my own students usually come to me having not read zen. i get constant e-mails from people saying we had to read zen, and i hate it. i'm sure they get the same kinds of messages, thank god for your
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book. i don't introduce it, it's just out there for people to get. and it's interesting, we're making a rapid progress toward catching zen in his total sales. in the last four or five years, we're on a trajectory to at least catch him pretty soon. he had about a, what, 15-year head start? >> we have one in the back. >> my name is pete dylan, i'm the marine corps fellow at the atlantic council. i have two questions. number one, your thoughts on how profound the paris peace conference was, specifically carving up the map on the rest of the 20th century. and then, number two, why did you choose the flag raising on the cover of your book? >> number one, perhaps next to the new deal, the versailles conference is one of the worst things that the 20th century gives us, in essence, word war ii. -- world war ii, and it not only is bad from the standpoint of destroying national entities,
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by moving people around and putting them in a situation where there's going to be inevitable conflict, that's one of the things it does. it destroys the very concept of collective security because, obviously, league of nations is a monstrous fail whereure. in terms of the flag raising oner is batch chi, it just seemed very symbolic that as the flag goes up, america's stock in the world was rising to this point of prominence. semper fi. >> any other questions? thank you, larry. [applause] >> thank you. >> and, as noted, we do have copies available. larry will be glad to sign them, have additional conversation up here on the panel table as well. we thank you all for your kind attention and hope to see you again soon in the future. we are dismissed. [inaudible conversations] >> for more information visit
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the author's web site, patriot'shistoryusa.com. ♪ ♪ >> if we turn away from the needs of others, we align ourselves with those horses which are bringing about this suffering. >> the white house is a bully pulpit, and you ought to take advantage of it. >> obesity in this country is nothing short of a public health crisis. >> i think i just had little antennas that went up and told me when somebody had their own agenda. >> so much influence in that office, it'd be just a shame to waste it. >> i think they serve as a window on the past to what was going on with american women. >> she becomes the chief
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confidant. she's really in a way the only one in the world he can trust. >> many of the women who are first ladies, a lot of them were writers, journalists, they wrote books. >> they are, in many cases, quite frankly, more interesting as human beings than their husbands. if only because they are not first and foremost defined and limited by political ambition. >> dolly was both a socially-adept and politically-savvy -- >> dolly madison loved every minute of it. mrs. monroe hated it, absolutely hated it. >> she warned her husband, you know, you can't rule without including what women want and what women have to contribute. >> and during this statement you were a little breathless, and it was too much looking down, and i think it was a little too fast. change your pace. >> yes, ma'am. >> she's probably the most